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Long term experiments

Table D2: Overview long-term experiments available to SmartSoil.

Name of data set

Geographical region/ location

Time period

Soil types

Crops

Management treatments

Rothamsted Research

01

Broadbalk Continuous wheat experiment

Temperate;

Harpenden, UK

51.82 N

0.35 W

 

1843 –

Ongoing

Chromic Luvisol

25% clay

15% sand

Winter wheat

Long-term fertilizer treatments (NPK, FYM) with a range of N rates

02

Park Grass experiment

Temperate;

Harpenden, UK

51.82 N

0.35 W

1856 - ongoing

Chromic Luvisol

23% clay

19% sand

Permanent grassland

Long-term fertilizer treatments (NPK, FYM) with 4 pH levels

03

Hoosfield Barley experiment

Temperate;

Harpenden, UK

51.82 N

0.35 W

1852 –

Ongoing

Chromic Luvisol

28% clay

15% sand

Spring barley

Long-term fertilizer treatments (NPK, FYM) with a range of N rates

04

Rates of straw experiment, Rothamsted

Temperate;

Harpenden, UK

51.82 N

0.35 W

1987 –

Ongoing

Chromic Luvisol

silty clay loam,

23% clay

Winter wheat

4 rates of straw incorporated annually (0, 1, 2 and 4 times normal rate)

05

Rates of straw experiment, Woburn

Temperate;

Woburn UK

52.02N

0.62 W

1987 –

Ongoing

Sandy loam, 8% clay

Winter wheat

4 rates of straw incorporated annually (0, 1, 2 and 4 times normal rate)

06

Long-term Soil Fertility Experiment, Ultana

Cool Temperate;

Sweden

60 N

17 E

1956-

ongoing

Eutric Cambisol

36.5% clay

22.5% sand

Arable rotation

Long-term fertilizer and manure  treatments including types of N, FYM, peat, sewage sludge, straw

07 Long-term Soil Fertility Experiment, Orja

Cool Temperate;

Sweden

55 ° 52 ‘ N

12 ° 53 ‘ E

1957-2010

Eutric Cambisol

23% clay

52% sand

Arable rotation

Mainly w wheat, s barley, sugar beet

Long-term fertilizer and manure  treatments with and without crop residues

08

Essai Permanent

Temperate;

Belgium

50 ° 34 ‘ N

4 °  43 ‘ E

1959 –

Ongoing

Eutric Cambisol

13.5% clay 5.4% sand

Arable rotation based on sugar beet with cereals

Long-term fertilizer and manure treatments with different crop residue treatments

09

Statischer Duengungsver-

such Bad Lauchstadt

Temperate;

Germany

51 °24 ‘ N

11 ° 53 ‘ E

1903 –

ongoing

Haplic Phaeozem

21% clay

11.2% sand

Sugar beet/s barley/potato/w wheat rotation

Long-term fertilizer and manure treatments with lime

10

Model experiment extremely high doses of FYM

Temperate;

Germany

51 °24 ‘ N

11 ° 53 ‘ E

1984-2009

Haplic chernozem

21% clay

11% sand

Maize/potato/ sugar beet/

wheat rotation

 

3 high rates of FYM (50, 100 and 200 t/ha/yr) plus control

11

Model experiment extremely high doses of FYM

Temperate;

Germany

51 °24 ‘ N

11 ° 53 ‘ E

1984-2009

Haplic chernozem

21% clay

11% sand

Bare Fallow

3 high rates of FYM (50, 100 and 200 t/ha/yr) plus control

VNIIA (All –Russian Institute for Agrochemistry)


12

DAOS 1 experiment Сomparative efficiency of FYM & inorganic fertilizers

 

Cool Temperate

(Southern Taiga)

Moscow Oblast, Russia

Latitude 55.92

longitude 37.53

1931- ongoing

Podzoluvisol

Clay 18%

Sand 11%

black fallow, winter wheat, potatoes (since 1994 sunflower), oat

Control

Manure different rates

lime

NPK different rates

NPK + lime

lime + manure

Aftereffect of fertilizers since 2003

13

DAOS 2 experiment Comparative efficiency of FYM & inorganic fertilizers

 

Cool Temperate (Sourthern Taiga)

Moscow Oblast, Russia

Latitude 55.92
longitude 37.53

1931- ongoing

Podzoluvisol

Clay 26%

Sand 8%

Clover fallow, winter wheat, potatoes (since 1994 sunflower), oat with grasses

Control

Manure different rates

lime

NPK different rates

NPK + lime

lime + manure

Aftereffect of fertilizers since 2003

14

DAOS 4 experiment.

Efficiency of low-analysis and high-analysis concentrated fertilizers

Cool Temperate (Southern Taiga)

Moscow Oblast, Russia

Latitude 55.92
longitude 37.53

1933- ongoing

Podzoluvisol

Clay 20%

Sand 10%

potatoes, (since 1994 sunflower), fodder beet, oat

Control

Manure different rates

NPK different rates

Aftereffect of fertilizers since 2003

15

Barybino experiment Sh 2. Efficiency of fertilization in combination with application of plant protection chemicals in arable crop rotation

 

Cool Temperate (southern Taiga)

Moscow Region

Russia

Latitude: 55.31
Longitude: 37.80

 

1960- ongoing

Podzoluvisol

Clay 19%

Sand 12%

vetch-oats, winter wheat, potato, barley + clover, clover, winter wheat

1. Control,

2. 1 background - FYM 10t/ha + N390P300K455 per rotation;

3. 2 background - N690P450K815 per rotation. effect of different combinations of herbicides, fungicides and retardants


16

Barybino experiment Sh5. Efficiency of FYM organic matter on improving of sod-podzol soils fertility

Cool Temperate (Sourthern Taiga)

Moscow Region Russia

Latitude: 55.31
Longitude: 37.80

1964-1966 - ongoing

 

 

 

 

Podzoluvisol

Clay 19%

Sand 12%

potato, winter wheat, fodder beat, spring barley

Control

Manure different rates

NPK different rates

Manure + NPK different rates

Aftereffect of fertilization since 1992

17

Torzhok LTE Optimization of organic & mineral fertilizers rates in flax rotation based on long-term fertilization influence on agrochemical soil properties

 

Cool Temperate

Southern Taiga)

Tver Oblast Russia

Latitude: 57.08
Longitude: 34.95

 

1948 - ongoing

Podsoluvisol

Clay 7%

Sand 80%

 

black fallow, winter rue+clover, grasses, flax,  potatoes, spring wheat, oat

Control

NP; NK;PK; NPK

Manure different rates

Manure + NPK different rates

 

18

Perm NIISKH LTE 2. Crop rotation system with maximum utilization of biological nitrogen

 

Cool Continental

(Southern Taiga)

Perm region,

Russia

Latitude: 58.01
Longitude: 56.33

1977- ongoing

Podzoluvisol

Clay 21%

Sand 20%

Bare fallow,  Winter rye,  Wheat + legumes, Clover first year,/ Clover second year, Barley

3 fertilizer backgrounds: PK NPK, NPK + 20 t/ha FYM


19

Perm NIISKH LTE 3. Fertilisation system on podzolic soil in Pre-Ural Region

 

Cool Continental (Southern Taiga)

Perm region,

Russia

Latitude: 57.89
Longitude: 56.51

1968- ongoing

Podzoluvisol

Clay 19%

Sand 20%

Bare fallow,  Winter rye,  Wheat + legumes, Clover first year,/ Clover second year, Barley

Control;

Ca - background

Ca – NP different rates;

Ca + NK different rates;

Ca + PK different rates

Ca + NPK different rates;

Ca + FYM different rates

20

Vladimir LTE. Effect of long-term fertilisation systems application for productivity of grain-row crop rotation, production quality and soddy podsolic soil fertility

Cool Temperate

(Southern Taiga)

Vladimir Oblast Russia

Latitude: 56 5‘
Longitude: 40 5‘

 

1968- ongoing

Podzol

Clay 8%

Sand 74%

Lupine

winter wheat barley potatoes

Control

Different NPK combinations

FYM and FYM+NPK in equivalent rates

Conservation in 1984-89 with 2 fallowing fields

21

Don NIISKH LTE. Efficiency of different ratios of mineral and organic fertilizers in crop rotation

 

Warm Continental (Southern Steppe)

Rostov Region,, Russia

Latitude: 47.26

Longitude: 39.89

1974- ongoing

Calcic chernozem

Bare fallow,  winter wheat, maise, barley, silage maize, winter wheat, . peas, winter wheat, sunflower

different nutrient rates with (equivalent) inputs of major nutrients given either in mineral fertilizers or in manure. Also treatments receiving only N,P,K,NP,NK,PK

22

Voronezh Sugar Beet Institute’s LTE. Fertilisation system for sugar beet and other crops in beet rotation

 

Warm Continental

(Typical Steppe)

Russia

Latitude: 51.618016
Longitude: 39.331054

Voronezh

1935- ongoing

Luvic chernozem

silage maize; winter wheat ;

sugar beet;

barley+clover; clover; winter wheat; sugar beet; pease; winter wheat

different nutrient rates with (equivalent) inputs of major nutrients given either in mineral fertilizers or in manure

University of Copenhagen (UCPH)

23

Combined food and energy production system (CFE) for enhanced provision of  ecosystem service

Temperate/ Denmark

56° 1 N, 10 º 00 E

1995-ongoing

Luvisol/phaeozem with clay illuviation (FAO, 1990) Loamy-clay

Clover, grass sp. wheat, oat, fodder beet, barley (food and feed component) willow, hazel and alder (energy component)

Treatment 1 (spacing of hedgerows at 50, 100 and 200 m apart

Treatment 2 (pasture, cereal and biomass component contribution to ecosystem goods and services

Aarhus University (AU)

24

Cropping system experiment for organic and conventional arable farming (CROPSYS)

Temperate/

Denmark

3 sites:

54°54'N, 9°8'E

56°30'N, 10°6'E

55°20'N, 11°23'E

1997-ongoing

Sand, Humic Podzol

Loamy sand, Mollic Luvisol

Loamy sand,

Glossic phaeozem

Grass-clover, winter wheat, spring barley, spring wheat, potato, pulse crops (pea, lupin, faba bean)

Three factors: Crop rotation (organic and conventional with varying proportions of grass-clover), manure (with and without), cover crop (with and without)


25

Tillage system experiment (CENTS)

Temperate, Denmark

2 sites:

 

56°30'N, 10°6'E

55°20'N, 11°23'E

2003- ongoing

Loamy sand, Mollic Luvisol

Loamy sand,

Glossic phaeozem

Wheat

Oilseed rape

Peas

Oats

Barley

Two factorial experiement:

Four tillage systems (ploughed, deep non inversion tillage, surface non-inversion tillage, no-tillage)

Different crop rotations

26

Askov long term fertilizer experiment

Temperate, Denmark, Askov

Lat 55° 28’

Long 9° 07’

1894 - ongoing

Sandy loam,

Agriudoll

 

Wheat

Sugar beet

Grass-clover

Barley

Different mineral and organic fertiliser rates

University of Florence (UNIFI)

27

Long Term Experiment

MOLTE

Long-term comparison of various management systems in the Montepaldi experimental farm

(Florence, ITALY)

 

Mediterranean area central Italy

Montepaldi (FI)

Lat 43° 40’ 16’’

Long 11° 09’ 08’’

 

1989/90 ongoing

Silty-loam subalcaline soil related to the Fluventic Xerochrepts

Corn

Wheat

Clover

Barley

 

 

Three micro-farms as example of three different management systems:

Organic old farming system

New organic framing system

Conventional farming system

 

 


28

Long Term Experiment

CIRAA Tillage for Soybean-Wheat

Italy

Longitude: 10 degrees 19 minutes East

Latitude: 43 degrees 40 minutes North

1981 ongoing

Typic Xerofluvent (USDA)

Sorghum

Spring Barley Sunflower

Soybean

Winter Wheat

Deep ploughing 
Shallow ploughing 
Chiseling 
Disk harrowing 

Application of inorganic fertilizer (kg/ha)

Herbicide

Straw incorporation

 

29

DAAPV long-term rotation

Medium Tevere Valley (Perugia), Central Italy

 

43°6′43.56″N 12°23′19.68″E

1971 ongoing

Fluventic Xerochrept soils with clay and poor of organic matter

Wheat

other typical crops of central Italy

Wheat rotated with other crops or in mono succession.

Factorial combination of crossed parcel scheme plot, 3 replications, 198 elementary parcels with two types of management:

removal of crop residues

sink of crop residues, with an integration of mineral nitrogen (10 kg t-1)

 

30

Valuation of cropping systems with different energy inputs in Mediterranean semi-arid environment

Mediterranean semi-arid Italy

Longitude: 13 degrees 31 minutes East

Latitude: 37 degrees 30 minutes North

1991 ongoing

Fluvi-Calcaric Cambisol (FAO-UNESCO, 1990). No root limiting layer

Wheat-Leguminous forage

Traditional management

 

Tillage systems for each crop:

Ploughing and two harrowing

Chiseling and ploughing

 

No tillage

Application of inorganic fertilizer (kg/ha):

Herbicide:

Straw in corporation

31

Fertilisations and crop residue incorporation in silty loam soil

Warm temperate mediterranean climate.

Legnaro (PD), Italy,

Longitude: 11 degrees 21 minutes East

Latitude: 45 degrees 11 minutes North

1966 ongoing

Fluvi-Calcaric Cambisol (FAO-UNESCO, 1990). No root liiting layer.

Wheat, maize, tomato and sugarbeet

3 crop residues management procedures.

5 levels of Nitrogen fertilization.

Addition of mineral P and K

32

Nitrogen fertilisation and crop residue incorporation in three types of soil

 

Warm temperate mediterranean climate.

Legnaro (PD), Italy,

Longitude: 11 degrees 21 minutes East

Latitude: 45 degrees 11 minutes North

1966 ongoing

Three types of soil in the experimental boxes: sandy loam and medium clay

Wheat, maize, tomato and sugarbeet

Four-year rotation

 

Six doses of nitrogen are compared  in factorial combination with the landfill or removal of residues from previous crop.

 

Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM)

33

Long term fertilisation and crop residue incorporation in two types of soil

Mediterranean  climate in a plateu with cold winters, advective conditions. Albacete, Spain,

Longitude: 1 degrees 51 minutes East

Latitude: 38 degrees 57 minutes North, 704 m altitude

1970 ongoing

Calcaric fluvisol and  (FAO-UNESCO, 1990). No root liiting layer.

Wheat, maize

Nitrogen fertilization (5 levels), reside management (2 levels), irrigation management (2 levels)

 

 


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Revised 11.09.2015